Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA) –entitles eligible employees to 12 weeks of unpaid, job-protected leave for certain family and medical reasons. At the employee’s or employer’s option, certain kinds of paid leave may be substituted for unpaid leave. Employees are eligible if they have worked for a covered employer for at least one year, and for 1,250 hours over the previous 12 months, and if there are at least 50 employees within 75 miles. The employee may be required to provide advance leave notice and medical certification. For the duration of FMLA leave, the employer must maintain the employee’s health coverage under any group health plan. Upon return from FMLA leave, most employees must be restored to their original or equivalent positions with equivalent pay, benefits, and other employment terms.
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) –all businesses with over 50 full-time equivalent employees provide health insurance for their employees or face a tax penalty. The employer mandate is officially referred to as a “shared responsibility fee”, as the fee will go to help fund cost-assistance to Americans using the health insurance exchanges and to compensate for unreimbursed emergency health care provided to the uninsured.